Tag Archives: Jeremiah Gurney

A. T. Goodell

ND                  251 Broadway, New York, New York.

1845                Corner Thames & Mary Streets, Newport, Rhode Island.

ND-1849         North William and Chatham Streets, New York, New York.

1853-1854       Corner of J and Third, Streets, Sacramento, California.[1]

A. T. Goodell was recorded in one advertisement in the Herald of the Times (Newport, Rhode) and one article in the St. Louis and Canadian Photographer (St, Louis, Missouri).  The advertisement that ran from May 29 to July 31, 1845.  Daguerreotype Rooms.  A, T. Goodell, Late of Plumbe’s, Broadway , New York, Would respectfully inform the Ladies and Gentlemen of Newport and vicinity, that he has engaged Rooms at the corner of Thames & Mary streets, for the purpose of taking pictures by the Daguerreotype process, where may be had miniatures, single or in groups, which for beauty of color, tone and effect, can be at all ties commend themselves; and if not superior, are equal to any that have been heretofore taken, upon as favorable terms at least.  They are also inserted in breast pins, lockets, &c., at various prices.

Painted or Daguerreotype Likenesses accurately copied.

The ladies and Gentlemen of Newport are respectfully invited to call and examine his specimens, if they intend sitting or not.

Taken in clear or cloudy weather.

Instructions carefully given—terms moderate.

The article appeared in the St. Louis and Canadian Photographer (St. Louis, Missouri) on March 1896, P. 114.  Our First Photographers

In reading of the recent death of the veteran photographer, M. B. Brady, in which it was claimed he was the father of photography in this country, I feel it is only justice to correct some of the statements, so I consulted Dr. A. T. Goodell, who began his career as a photographer in 1843 in this city, and obtained some facts which may interest your numerous readers.

In the year 1840‑41, a short time after Daguerre had invented the process of taking pictures bearing his name‑‑the daguerreotype‑‑John Plumbe, Jr., William H. Butler, S. Draper, James R. Chilton, and Samuel F. B. Morse, the inventor of telegraphy, opened a place at 7 Bowery to experiment in taking pictures by the Daguerre process.  They used only a side light.  It occurred to John Plumbe, Jr., that a skylight would bring about better results, and he leased the upper floors of 251 Broadway, corner of Murray street, where the Postal Telegraph building now stands, and opened Plumbe’s National Gallery, employing twelve operators and Mrs. Thomas, an artist, taking 400‑500 pictures a day at from $3 to $8 each.  At that time M. B. Brady was manufacturing daguerreotype cases at 187 Broadway.

Plumbe’s phenomenal success with the top light led many others to embark in the business, among which were Anthony, Edward & Clark, 247 Broadway, J. Gurney, 189 Broadway, and A. Bogardus, 217 Greenwich street.  J.M. Scoville started in the manufacturing of stock for galleries, and Brady still made cases, but in about 1845 or 1846 he opened a gallery at his factory, 187 Broadway.

Thus it appears that Plumbe was the first photographer in this country.

He opened galleries in all the principal cities in the United States, in London, and Paris, and made a fortune.  Dr. Goodell, who was Plumbe’s head operator, opened his own place at North William and Chatham streets, selling it out to go to California in 1849, around Cape Horn, and when he became stranded, after various ups and downs, his training with Plumbe enabled him to take charge of R. H. Vance’s gallery in Sacramento, the price for one daguerreotype being a half ounce of gold dust, worth about $8.  From the old Daguerre process, so successfully improved and enlarged by Plumbe and his operators, all of whom became prominent, grew the albumen process on glass, the collodion process, then dry plates, and so on.

Plumbe opened two galleries in Washington, one of which was in the Capitol building, and took the pictures of all the prominent men of the day.  [W. M. Chapman, in N. Y. Sun.

A. T. Goodell is recorded in other photographic directories, but the information above helps to clarify his early years.  Goodell is not listed in the New York City Directories between 1839/1840 to 1849/1850.   


[1] Pioneer Photographers Of The Far West A Biographical Dictionary, 1840-1865.

Gillies & Johnson

1859                156 Bowery, New York, New York.

Gillies & Johnson (Gillies & John H. Johnson) were recorded in three advertisements in The New York Herald (New York, New York).  The first advertisement appeared on October 9, 1859.  Draw The Conclusion.–$5,000 Rent For A First class gallery in Broadway; $800 for the same class gallery in the Bowery; go, then, to the Bowery Photographic Palace of Art, 156 Bowery, four doors from Broome street, for your pictures.  Photographs $1 and upwards.  Daguerreotypes and ambrotypes, 50 cents and upwards.  This is the most extensive and best fitted up gallery on Bowery.  Gillies & Johnson, proprietors.  N. B.—Mr. Johnson has served at Gurney’s gallery as operator for eight years.

The second advertisement appeared on November 6, 1859. Holyday Gifts.–Go to The Bowery Photographic Palace of Art, 156 Bowery, for your pictures, Photographs, Daguerreotypes and Ambrotypes at 50 cents (and) upwards. This is the largest and best fitted up gallery on the Bowery. Gillies & Johnson. N. B.–Mr. Johnson has served at Gurney’s gallery as operator for eight years.

The third advertisement appeared on November 16, 1859.  Holiday Gifts.—Get Your Pictures Taken At 156 Bowery.—Photographs, Daguerreotypes and Ambrotypes at 50 cents and upwards.  Gillies & Johnson.  N. B.—Mr. Johnson has served at Gurney’s gallery as operator for eight years.

Gillies is not recorded in other photographic directories, nor is the partnership of Gillies & Johnson.  John H. Johnson is recorded in Craig’s Daguerreian Registry as being active in New York City in 1860 at 156 Bowery address.  What is possibly new information is that Johnson worked for Gurney since ca. 1851.

Samuel Raymond Fanshaw

1843                235 Broadway, New York New York.

1850                247 Broadway, New York, New York.

Samuel Raymond Fanshaw was recorded in eight advertisements and two announcements, in the New York Herald and New York Tribune.  He was an miniature painter & artist according to the New York City Directory, and a miniature & portrait painter according to an entry in The New York Historical Society’s Dictionary of Artists in America 1564-1860. The advertisements and announcements show him in the partnerships of Fanshaw, Young & Cunningham; Fanshaw & Hite and Hite, Langenheim & Fanshaw.  The city directories only list him as an artist and not in a partnership.

The first advertisement ran every other day from May 25 to 29, and every day from June 4 to 6, 1843 in The New York Herald.  Miniature Portraits copied from Daguerreotypes in natural colors on ivory, with perfect accuracy, or with any desired alteration or improvement on very moderate terms.  Specimens to be seen in the Daguerreotype Room, No. 1, at 235 Broadway, near park place.

The first announcement appeared on September 19,1843 in the New York Daily Tribune.  Fair at the American Museum.—The problem of opening a new and spacious Saloon at the American Museum, as a Perpetual Fair or Bazaar for the Exhibition and Sale of Goods, Wares, Merchandize, &c has proved highly successful.  It is now one of the most attractive Halls in the Establishment, and is undoubtedly the cheapest Advertising Medium in the world.  The name, location and business of all depositors are advertised in 100,000 small bills per annum—also in the principal city papers.  The following persons have already made deposits in this Fair, and as nearly all the articles are For Sale, Merchants and others will find it to their interest to make their purchases through this medium.  It is obvious that no articles but those of the best quality are deposited here.  Persons desirous of depositing specimens of Goods or Cards of Business in the perpetual Fair, can do so on reasonable terms.  Circulars of prices, & c. can be obtained at the Office of the Museum.

Daguerreotype Miniatures…..N. G. Burgess, 192 Broadway

Daguerreotype Miniatures…..J. Gurney, 189 Broadway

Daguerreotype Miniatures…..J. Plumbe, Jr., 251 Broadway

Daguerreotype Miniatures…..Fanshaw, Young & Cunningham, 235 Broadway

The second announcement appeared on June 18, 1850 in the New York Herald.  Fine Arts.—Samuel R. Fanshaw & George H. Hite, miniature and portrait painters, have associated with W. & F. Langenheim, the celebrated Daguerreotype and Talbotype artist of Philadelphia, and purchased the splendid National Miniature Gallery, established by Edwards, Anthony & Clark, 247 Broadway, corner Murray street, where they will superintend the sittings for Daguerreotypes.  Their Talbotype miniatures and portraits, which are taken upon ivory, ivory-paper, etc., may be seen in the above gallery.  There is but one prevailing opinion, that they possess all the truthfulness of a good Daguerreotype, with all the artistic merit that has characterized the former highly finished miniatures of those artists.  For further evidence; please call and see them.

The second advertisement ran from June 27 to 28, 1850 in the New York Herald.  Fine Arts.—Talbotypes and Daguerreotypes.—The subscribers having purchased the National Miniature Gallery, 247 Broadway, (late E. White’s) are prepared to take Talbotype Portraits of all sizes, up to the size of life.  The fidelity of likeness, and the beautiful finish of these pictures, gain them greater popularity every day.  Daguerreotypes taken in the most approved style.  The public are respectfully invited to examine specimens at our establishment, 247 Broadway.  Hite, Langenheim & Fanshaw.

The third advertisement ran from July 3 to 6, 1850 in the New York Herald.  Fine Arts.—Talbotypes and Daguerreotypes.—The subscribers having purchased the National Miniature Gallery, 247 Broadway, (late E. White’s) are prepared to take Talbotype Portraits of all sizes, up to the size of life.  The fidelity of likeness, and the beautiful finish of these pictures, gain them greater popularity every day.  Daguerreotypes taken in the most approved style.  The public are respectfully invited to examine specimens at our establishment, 247 Broadway.  Hite, Langenheim & Fanshaw.

The fourth advertisement appeared on July 10, 1850 in the New York Herald.  Fine Arts.—Talbotypes, or Portraits on Ivory and ivory paper, are daily taken in a superior style, and in any size required up to the size of life, at the National Miniature Gallery.  Daguerreotypes taken in the most artistical style.  The public are invited to examine specimens at 247 Broadway.  Hite, Langenheim & Fanshaw.

The fifth advertisement ran from July 14 to 17, 1850 in the New York Herald.  Fine Arts.—Talbotypes, or Portraits on Ivory and ivory paper, are daily taken in a superior style, and in any size required up to the size of life, at the National Miniature Gallery.  Daguerreotypes taken in the most artistical style.  The public are invited to examine specimens at 247 Broadway.  Hite, Langenheim & Fanshaw.

The sixth advertisement ran on July 16 & 20, 1850 in the New York Daily Tribune.  Fine Arts—Talbotypes, or Portraits on Ivory, Ivory Paper and Glass, and Daguerreotypes, are daily taken by the subscribers in a superior style, and in any size required up to the size of life.  The public are respectfully invited to examine specimens at the National Miniature Gallery, 247 Broadway.  Hite, Langenheim & Fanshaw.                                                        

The seventh advertisement ran on July 18 to 19, 1850 in the New York Herald.  Fine Arts.—Talbotypes, or Portraits on Ivory and ivory paper and glass, and daguerreotypes are daily taken by the subscribers, in a superior style, and in any size required up to the size of life. The public are respectfully invited to examine specimens at the National Miniature Gallery, 247 Broadway.  Hite, Langenheim & Fanshaw.

The eighth advertisement appeared on August 29, 1850 in the New York Daily Tribune.  To Artists.—An artists who understands Miniature Portrait Painting in oil and water colors, and who can give proof of his talents, can find employment at the National Miniature Gallery, No. 247 Broadway.  None but competent persons need apply.  Hite, Langenheim & Fanshaw.                                                                                  

Samuel R. Fanshaw is recorded in the New York City Directories.

1840/1841 & 1841/1842—Miniature painter, 1 Cortlandt, H- 280 Henry.

1842/1843 to 1844/1845—Artist, 1 Cortlandt, H-249 Seventh.

1845/1846—Artist, 1 Cortlandt, H-[ ? ] Ave C & 11th.

1846/1847-1847/1848—Artist, 25 Maiden Lane & 1 Cortlandt, H-249 Seventh.

1848/1849—Artist, 1 Cortlandt, H-249 Seventh.

1849/1850—Artist, 1 Cortlandt, H-Winchester.

1850/1851—Artist, 247 Broadway, B-Winchester.

1851/1852 to 1855/1856—Artist, 363 Broadway, H-Conn. (1854/1855) Norwalk.

1856/1857 & 1857/1858—Painter, 363 Broadway, H-Conn.

1858/1859—Not listed.

1859/1860—Artist, 381 Broadway, H-Hamilton Ave., near Gates Ave., Brooklyn.

Samuel R. Fanshaw is recorded in Craig’s Daguerreian Registry, but is misidentified as Thomas Fanshaw.  From 1851 to 1857 the 363 Address is the same as Samuel Root’s it is possible that Fanshaw is working for Root.  At this time it is only speculation about the connection.  

George Penabert

1856-1857       168 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[1]                                            1856-1857       585 Broadway, New York, New York.                                                                                1857                   587 Broadway, New York, New York.

George Penabert is recorded in one article and six advertisements.  The article appeared on April 1, 1856 in the Photographic and fine Arts Journal (New York, New York).  In an article entitled the Photographic Galleries of America.  Number Two, Philadelphia. The author visited 57 Galleries in Philadelphia.  Fredericks, Penabert & Germon, Chestnut St.—The distinguishing feature of this gallery is its oil colored photographs, which are only equaled by some I have seen in Brady’s gallery New York. The positive photographs show much artistic skill, and are notable for great depth of tone, softness of contour, and for even balance of light and shade. The rooms are very prettily furnished, and their appearance very effective.

The first advertisement appeared on August 26 1856 in the New York Daily Tribune (New York, New York).   The Copartnership heretofore existing between Messrs. Gurney & Fredericks having been dissolved by mutual consent.  Mr. Charles D. Fredericks would respectfully announce to his former patrons and friends that he has removed the Photographic department, of which he was the introducer in this country, to his new, large and elegant rooms, at No. 585 Broadway, opposite the Metropolitan Hotel.  The several European artists, which Mr. Fredericks introduced from his Parisian establishment, will continue to assist him in the various styles of coloring, viz: Oil, Paste and Water.  Those who have examined their productions acknowledge them to be superior to those of any other artist in this country.  The advantage which the undersigned has by his connection with his Paris establishment, will enable him to introduce immediately upon their discovery in France the various improvements in the Photographic, Daguerreotype, and Ambrotype branches of the art.  The Daguerreian Department will be under the supervision of an accomplished and scientific operator.  The rooms are more spacious, and elegantly arranged than any in New York, and the reception room being situated on the first floor, obviates the necessity of ascending to lofty flights.  In conclusion the proprietor pledges himself to produce pictures which, for clearness delicacy of touch and harmony in coloring shall suit every taste.  These pictures will be of every style and size, and he trusts that those who so long and kindly have extended to him their patronage, will continue to support his endeavors to maintain art in its most refined state.

Charles D. Fredericks, No. 585 Broadway.                                                                                                      Fredericks, Penabert & German, Philadelphia.                                                                                           Fredericks, Penabert & Leblanc, Paris.

The second advertisement appeared on December 11, 1856 in the New York Daily Tribune (New York, New York).  Photographs.—Penabert of Paris, Photographist; finished in oil, aquarelle and pastel, by the talented and inimitable corps of Parisian artists introduced to this country by C. D. Fredericks, No. 585 Broadway, opposite Metropolitan Hotel.

The third advertisement appeared on December 12, 1856 in The New York Herald (New York, New York).  Photographs.—Penabert of Paris, Photographist; finished in oil, aquarelle and pastel, by the talented and inimitable corps of Parisian artists introduced to this country by C. D. Fredericks, No. 585 Broadway, opposite Metropolitan Hotel.

The fourth advertisement ran on December 23 & 26, 1856 in the New York Daily Tribune (New York, New York).  Ambrotypes and Melainotypes.—The most beautiful specimens produced in this city are by E. L. Walker (formerly of Brady’s Gallery), now at the magnificent Gallery of C. D. Fredericks, Photographist, No. 585 Broadway, opposite Metropolitan Hotel.

Photographs.—Penabert of Paris, Photographist.  Finished in oil, aquarelle, and pastel, by the talented and inimitable corps of Parisian artists, introduced to this country by C. D. Fredericks, No. 585 Broadway, opposite Metropolitan Hotel.

Presents For The Holidays.—There is nothing so acceptable for a Holiday present as a beautiful Photograph, Daguerreotype, or Ambrotype, which should be secured as early as possible at Fredericks Magnificent Gallery, No. 585 Broadway, opposite the Metropolitan Hotel.

The fifth advertisement appeared on October 17, 1857 in the New York Daily Tribune (New York, New York) .  Card.—Mr. George Penabert, having returned from Paris would be happy to see his friends at Fredricks’s Photographic Temple of Art, 585 and 587 Broadway.

The sixth advertisement appeared on October 17, 1857 in The New York Herald (New York, New York).  Card.—Mr. George Penabert, having returned from Paris, would be happy to see his friends at Fredricks’s Photographic Temple of Art, 585 and 587 Broadway.

George Penabert is recorded in other photographic directories.  Craig’s Daguerreian Registry and Directory Of Pennsylvania Photographers 1839-1900 list him as Penabert.

[1] Not all first names or complete addresses were recorded in article.  Directory Of Pennsylvania Photographers 1839-1900 was used to assist in identification when possible first name and address were added.

 

Robert Newell

1857                Address Unknown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.                                                        1858-1859    926 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.1

Robert Newell was listed in one announcement that appeared on November 7, 1857 in the New York Daily Tribune (New York, New York).  Premiums Awarded at the Twenty ninth Fair of the American Institute…Daguerreotypes, Photographs, Hallotypes, &c.

M. B. Brady, No. 359 Broadway, N. J., for best plain and retouched photographs.………………………………………………………………………………….Small Gold Medal  J. Gurney, No. 349 Broadway, N. Y., for plain and retouched Photographs (a Gold Medal having been before awarded…………………………………………………………..Diploma M. M. Lawrence, No. 381 Broadway, N. Y., for the best Daguerreotypes and Miniatures in Oil …………………………………………………………………………………Large Silver Medal    Meade Brothers, No. 233 Broadway, N. Y., for instantaneous Daguerreotypes.……………………………………………………………………………………….Bronze Medal J. Gurney, No. 349 Broadway, N. Y., for the best life-size Photographs in Oil (a Gold Medal having been before awarded……………………………………………………Diploma              C. D. Fredricks, Nos. 585 and 587 Broadway, N. Y., for life-size Photographs in Oil (a Gold Medal having been before awarded)……………………………………………………Diploma  C. D. Fredericks, Nos. 585 and 587 Broadway, N. Y., for the best Crayon Photographs and Hallotypes………………………………………………………………………Large Silver Medal J. Gurney, No. 349 Broadway, N. Y., for Crayon Photographs and Hallotypes.……………………………………………………………………………………….Bronze Medal J. Gurney, No. 349 Broadway, N. Y., for the best Photographs in Aquerille.…………………………………………………………………………………Small Silver Medal C. D. Fredericks, Nos. 585 and 587 Broadway, N. Y., for Photographs in Aquerille.……………………………………………………………………………………….Bronze Medal S. C. Holmes, No. 289 Broadway, N. Y., for the best Photographic Views.…………………………………………………………………………………Small Silver Medal B. Hafnagel, No. 413 Broadway, N. Y., for photographic Views and copies of Prints.……………………………………………………………………………………….Bronze Medal Phillip E. Bogart & Co., No. 58 Pine street, N. Y., for Photographs by the Solar Camera.…………………………………………………………………………………………….Diploma G. N. Bernard, Syracuse, N. Y., for Photographs on Wood.…………………………………………………………….…………………………Bronze Medal C. C. Harrison, Fifty-third Street, near East River, N. Y., for Photographic Cameras (a Silver Medal having been before awarded……………………………………………………Diploma Robert A. Werner, No. 25 East Broadway, N. Y., for an ingeniously planned Diaphragm.……………………………………………………………………………………………..DiplomaA. Beckers, No. 411 Broadway, N. Y., for a Stereoscopic Panorama.……………………………………………………………………………………………..DiplomaR. Newell & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., for three delicately tinted Portraits.……………………………………………………………………………………………..Diploma J. Gurney, No. 349 Broadway, N. Y., for the best Photographs in Pastel.……………………………………………………………………………………….Bronze Medal C. D. Fredricks, Nos. 585 and 587 Broadway, N. Y., for Photographs in Pastel.……………………………………………………………………………………………..Diploma

Robert Newell is recorded in other photographic directories as being active in Philadelphia in 1858-1860.

 

George P. Morse

1859                691 Broadway, New York, New York.

George P. Morse was recorded in one advertisement that appeared on September 9, 1859 in The New York Herald (New York, New York).  Photograph Gallery For Sale—Large, And well located; only up one flight of stairs; five year lease, with or with out specimens and apparatus; is between Brady and Gurney’s, 691 Broadway.  A fine locality for bon ton business.  Inquire of George P. Morse, on the premises.[1]

George P. Morse is recorded in Craig’s Daguerreian Registry as George D. Morse in 1860 at 691 Broadway.  This is the same address as Silas A. Holmes.

[1] 691 Broadway is Silas A. Holmes address, he also uses the term “bon ton” in his advertisements.

Peter G. Clark

1850                Address Unknown, [Boston], Massachusetts.[1]                                                1851                247 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts.[2]                                                      1851-1852     36 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts.[3]                                                      1852-1854      in San Francisco, California.[4]                                                                          1853                Address Unknown, Boston, Massachusetts.[1]                                                  1854                103 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts.[3]                                                    1854-1856      in New York City.[4]                                                                                                1855                158 Bowery, New York, New York.[5]                                                                      1857                Lower Great George Street, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.[4]  1859-1862      in San Francisco, California.[4]

Peter G. Clark first appeared in the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association Report for September 1850.  He exhibited daguerreotypes at the sixth exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, no award was given.

Reported on December 20, 1851 in The Carpet Bag (Boston, Massachusetts). A Present.—We have received from the artist, Mr. P. G. Clark, No. 247 Washington street, an elegant and faithful likeness of Mrs. H. M. Stephens, of this city, and we take pleasure in exhibiting the treasure to our many visitors. [We have an adjourned promise of the transcript of another fair face from the East—“down east,”—when the “sometimes operator” shall get back.] Of course we are proud of it, and of course we thank the donor, and commend him to the notice of that public which always patronizes those who favor the printers.

Reported in the September 1853 report of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association.  Peter G. Clark exhibited daguerreotypes at the sixth exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. Award a bronze medal for daguerreotype views of California.

Reported in an advertisement on December 22, 1855 in the New York Daily Tribune (New York, New York). Handsome Ladies!—Pictures Taken Gratis!—The time fixed for the opening of Barnum’s Gallery Of Beauty has been extended for a short period $20,000 will be expended in Premiums to the 100 handsomest Ladies and for painting their portraits.  Highest prize $1,000.  For particulars see circulars at the Museum.  Daguerreotypes for this Gallery will be taken free of all expense to the sitter, if application be made to them immediately, by all the principal artists in the United States, including the following superior Daguerreotypist in the City of New York.

J. Gurney, No. 489 Broadway; M. M. Lawrence, No. 831 Broadway; S. Root, No. 363 Broadway; Meade Brothers, No. 233 Broadway; R. Anson, No. 589 Broadway; Beckers & Piard, No. 264 Broadway; M. H. Kimball, No. 407 Broadway; J. W. Thompson, No. 315 Broadway, and 182 Fulton-st, Brooklyn; M. Kerston, No. 421 Broadway, cor. of canal; P. Welling, Cor. of Bleecker and Carmine-sts; P. G. Clark, No. 156 Bowery; Jullus Brill, No. 204 Chatham-st; R. A. Lewis, No. 142 Chatham Square.

Peter G. Clark is known see the following publications for more information Pioneer Photographers of the Far West, A Biographical Dictionary 1840-1865Craig’s Daguerreian Registry, A Directory of Massachusetts Photographers 1839-1900.

The new Information, is the fact that he showed at the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association in 1850 and in 1853, the advertisement in the Carpet Bag newspaper with the 247 Washington Street address, and the December 22, 1855 New York Daily Tribune advertisement with address of 156 Bowery, New York.

[1] Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association records, 1850 & 1853.                                        [2] The Carpet Bag (newspaper).                                                                                                                        [3] Directory of Massachusetts Photographers 1839-1900.                                                                          [4] Pioneer Photographers of the Far West.                                                                                                        [5] New York Daily Tribune (newspaper).

Marcus A. & Samuel Root

For the past couple of months I’ve been working on The New York Daily Tribune (April 22, 1842 through December 31, 1859.)  The Tribune is a daily newspaper published six day a week, on April 10th 1850 the paper starts publishing eight pages with six columns, previously it was four pages with six columns.  It’s huge and very time consuming to go through.  But rich with advertisements and articles, some new name and activity dates have been found that have not been previously recorded. Normally I would wait until the newspaper has been completely gone through and checked before writing anything up.  But I wanted to write something to keep up the blog, but there are so many names to choose from Anson; Anthony; Brady; Butler; Clark; Gavit; Gurney; Holmes; Humphrey; Insley; Knapp; Langenheim; Lawrence; Meade Brothers; Morand; Page; Plumbe; Rees; Root; Van Loan; White, or Whitehurst. And these are only some of the names with larger files, there are many more names with smaller files, and I have just finished going through 1853 with six years to go.

The largest file is that of the Root’s, Marcus A. and Samuel. They advertise almost every day, and in many cases more than once, an advertisement rarely run on consecutive days, and only occasionally are they repeated, but for the most part every day is a different one.  There are a number of observations that I thought needed mentioning.  In the Directory of Pennsylvania Photographers1839-1900 by Linda A. Ries and Jay W. Ruby, and in Philadelphia Photographers 1840-1900 By William and Marie Brey there is no listing for Samuel Root. In the Brey directory Samuel is listed in his brothers bio under selected Biographies, but nothing is said about his work in Philadelphia. In Craig’s Daguerreian Registry he states that little is known of Samuel’s early career.  To date I have not read any of the newspapers from Philadelphia so I have nothing to add, except that in an advertisement from the New York Daily Tribune dated July 12, 1848.

Henry Clay In His 71St Year.—Published this day, (June 6, 1848.) by E. Anthony, 205 Broadway, a beautiful steel mezzotint engraving of Henry Clay, drawn and engraved from several Daguerreotypes by H. H. Ritchie (this is probably Alexander Hay Ritchie.)

This likeness was mainly taken from a fine Daguerreotype now in the possession of the subscriber, executed by Messrs. Paige & Beach, Washington. The artists is also indebted to Daguerreotypes taken by Messrs. Root, Simons, and W. & F. Langenheim of Philadelphia, and M. B. Brady, M. M. Lawrence and the Plumbe Gallery of New York, to all of whom the subscriber takes this occasion to express his thanks for the liberality with which they placed their valuable pictures at his disposal….

One can only speculate that “Messrs. Root” means Marcus A. & Samuel. That would mean that Samuel was active in Philadelphia in 1848, and possibly earlier.

The following two advertisements place Marcus in New York City in September 1850. The first announces the opening of his gallery at 363 Broadway.

New York Daily Tribune.  September 26, 1850…M. A. Root’s Daguerreotype Saloons, South west corner of Broadway and Franklin-st.—M. A. Root celebrated for years as a Daguerreotypist in Philadelphia has opened a magnificently furnished suits of rooms in the most fashionable part of the city, (363 Broadway, corner Franklin-st.) where having an admirable sky-light, he flatters himself that he will be able to furnish Daguerreotype Likenesses, equal in finish, accurate and effect, to anything of the kind in the world.  He has [six] medals from the various institutes and fairs of our country for his superior productions.  He invites the public to visit his rooms and examine his Gallery of Likenesses of [the] most distinguished people.

On the same page another advertisement appears and possibly proves the authorship of the Jenny Lind Daguerreotype that has been speculated was taken by Samuel.

Jenny Lind.—Have you seen this famous lady? If not, have you seen the great likeness of her taken yesterday by Root, the renowned Daguerreotypist from Philadelphia, who just opened the most magnificent Daguerreotype Saloons in the country.  Go and see it.  The place is gorgeously fitted up, and Jenny’s likeness is wonderful.

Not until October 23, 1850 in the New York Daily Tribune do we find Samuel’s name mentioned in an advertisement. Between October 23, 1850 to December 8, 1851 most of the time the partnership is identified as M. A. & S. Root, on December 9, 1851 for the only time the firm is identified in the New York Daily Tribune as Root and Co.

It is difficult to determine when the partnership ends in New York. We learn from the Journals of the day that Marcus sold his interest of the New York Gallery by the end of 1851.  John Craig reports that Marcus and Samuel were still listed in the New York City Directories until 1853 this might explain the occasional reference to M.A. & S. Root, and the fact that no first names are use in the advertisements, the firm is referred to as Root’s.  Not until 1854 does Samuel’s name appear in the advertisements as Samuel Root or S. Root.

On October 23, 1850 in the New York Daily Tribune the following advertisement appears.

The Question Settled.—A day or two will settle it. We affirm that M. A. & S. Root make Daguerreotype pictures that cannot be equaled in this country.  Will they get the gold medal at the Fair?  That remains to be seen.  It is a test that will settle the whole difficulty.  Their elegant Saloons are at the southwest corner of Broadway and Franklin-st.

There is no question that Marcus and Samuel Root are both in the top echelon of image makers in the 1850’s. If for no other reason their advertisements tell us so.  Shortly after John A. Whipple of Boston announces the patent of the Crayon Daguerreotype in the Tribune, the Roots purchase the rights for everywhere except New England.  They (Marcus & Samuel) advertise that they are making the Crayon Daguerreotype, they hold the patent and it’s the only place to get it.  Two examples in the New York Daily Tribune when the firm was Marcus and Samuel Root.

On February 19, 1851…New Style Of Art.—Letters Patent have been granted for a new and beautiful style of Miniatures, called “Crayon Daguerreotypes.” The effect is truly wonderful, and recommends itself to all good judges.  Artists and others are invited to call at 363 Broadway, corner of Franklin-st, Root’s Gallery, and examine specimens.Advertisement ran on February 19 & 20, 1851.

And then on February 26, 1851…Crayon Daguerreotypes—Process patented.—this new and exquisite style of art is pronounced by artists and all good judges, “the last great improvement in Daguerreotyping.” Ladies and gentlemen are invited to call and judge for themselves.  This new style can be had only at Root’s Gallery, 363 Broadway, cor. of Franklin-st.                                                                                                                         Advertisement ran on February 26 & 27, 1851.

This type of advertisement continues into 1854. On April 27, 1852….Crayon Pictures.—The Exquisitely delicate Crayon Daguerreotype is taken in full perfection in cloudy weather, by Root, No. 363 Broadway.  By-the-way, we would caution Daguerreian Artists and others against taking these pictures in any other establishment, since Root owns the patent for this region, and will be sure to prosecute all infringements.

June 25, 1852….The best artists pronounce the beautiful Crayon Pictures the most perfect thing ever achieved by the Daguerreotype. It is taken only by Root, No. 363 Broadway, to whom eleven first premiums have been awarded.

May 20, 1853….The magnificent Crayon Daguerreotype, Made only at Root’s Gallery, No. 363 Broadway, is still the delight and admiration of all true lovers of art. Examine it, by all means.  Root’s Rooms, easy of access.

Not once is there a mention of Whipple the inventor of the process, nor do they acknowledge that they purchased the rights from him. Published in the July 1851 issue of the Photographic and Fine Arts Journal….the following appears.  Mr. Root, of New York, has now brought the Crayon Daguerreotype process to such perfection that we cannot express too highly an appreciation of the beautiful specimens he sends from his gallery.  We have always expressed our admiration for this style of picture, and Mr. J. A. Whipple, of Boston, has not, we think, received that credit for the invention which he most richly deserves.  We never saw a more beautiful picture than the one he exhibited to us two years ago, taken in this style, and we never have yet seen it surpassed…

Root through his advertising style has alienated many of the photographic community in New York claiming that they are the best, and when multiple awards were given at the World’s Fair in New York he claims almost every day that he won the highest award at the fair. In fact he was only one of five daguerreotypist who won the Bronze Medal, in addition Charles C. Harrison also won the Bronze Medal for a Camera.  Whipple won the highest award a Silver Medal for his Crystalotypes.  Below is the complete list of awards given as published in the Tribune on January 20, 1854.  The following day the list of Honorable Mention were listed.

The [1853] Exhibition At The Crystal Palace. Official Awards of Juries.

Jury F.  Class 10.  Philosophical Instruments And Their Products….

Silver Medal.

Whipple, John A.  Boston, Mass, U. S., for Crystalotypes a new art.

Bronze Medal.

Butler, Alexander.  [  ?  ]  U. S., for several excellent Daguerreotypes.                            Brady, Mathew B. New-York City, U. S., for uniformly excellent Daguerreotypes.            Harrison, C. C.  New-York City, U. S., for Camera.                                                                  Hesler, Alexander, [Galena, Ill.], U. S., for several beautiful Daguerreotypes,            Lawrence, Martin M. [New-York City], U. S., for excellent Daguerreotypes, particularly     “past, present, future.”                                                                                                                 Root, Samuel.  New-York City, U. S., for fine Daguerreotypes.

Honorable Mention.

Gurney, Jeremiah.  New-York City, U. S., for fine Daguerreotypes.                              Harrison & Hill.  Brooklyn, U. S., for Daguerreotypes.                                                           Long, E.  St. Louis, Mo., U. S., for an exquisite Daguerreotype of a lady.                            Meade Bros.  New-York City, U. S., for Daguerreotypes of “Seven Ages of Man.”            Moissinet, Dobyne & Richardson, New-Orleans, U. S., for Daguerreotypes.                      North, W[illiam]. C. Cleveland, U. S., for Daguerreotypes.                                                  Peters Otis F. sic [Otis T.], New-York City, U. S., for Stereoscopes.                                       Root, M. A., Philadelphia, U. S., for fine Daguerreotypes.                                            Whitehurst, J. H., Baltimore, U. S., for fine Daguerreotypes.

The day the Tribune published the list of award winners January 20th Root placed the following advertisement.  Crystal palace Medal.—The Bronze Medal of the World’s Fair at the New-York Crystal Palace, being the highest honor for Daguerreotypes, was yesterday awarded to Root, of No. 363 Broadway.  Palmam qyi meruit ferat.  This type of advertising continues almost every day.  In fact one advertisement by Root was copied entirely, with Mathew Brady’s name attached.  The next day Root complains.  This is not the first time that Root’s style has caused a rift between the photographic community.  Words have passed between Gurney and also with Lawrence.  I am sure that if Plumbe or Whitehurst were still active in New York they also would have had a disagreement with Root’s claims.

To be continued…..