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England & Gunn

1847-1849       Southeast corner of Chestnut and Fifth Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

England & Gunn (B. England & L. C. Gunn) after a cursory search, thirty-six advertisements and announcements in various Philadelphia newspapers were located.   First Gunn’s initials are L. C. which has previously been misidentified in several photographic directories and histories as Mille.  In the first announcement dated March 6, 1848 they are referred to has gentlemen.  Mille is identified as being active in the Photographic and Fine Arts Journal April 1, 1856, Vol. IX, No. 4, P. 124 in an article entitled the Photographic Galleries of America.  Number Two, Philadelphia. “Gunn, Mlle. — A lady artist. Success to her, whatever her faults.”  It is possible that other’s assumed since she was active in 1856 that she was the same person who was active in 1848?

Not being from the Philadelphia area, I am familiar with some of the daguerreotypist names like Cornelius, D.C. & T. P. Collins,  Langenheim Brothers, McClees & Germon, Plumbe, Root, Simons, and Van Loan to name a few.  But I was unaware of the names of England and Gunn.  If the newspaper accounts are correct and accurate they should be included in the photographic histories along with names above.  I am unaware of any identified daguerreotypes by them, but the advertisements and announcements do mention several daguerreotypes that were engraved, were they given credit for taking the original images is unknown at this time.

The following are a few of the advertisements and announcements.   

The first advertisement appeared in the Public Ledger (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) which was recorded on December 30, 1847.  Presents For The New Year!  Having purchased the Daguerreotype Establishment of W. R. Elliott, Southeast corner of Fifth and Chestnut Streets, and having fitted up the premises in a new style, and with entire new chemicals, we invite our friends, and all who wish to get a superior likenesses of a family group, to visit our rooms, The entrance is on Fifth street, and is pleasantly private.  Practical experience, and the superior advantages of our rooms for light, enable us to Guaranty, to such as have not seen our work, pictures of the finest and most finished character, and executed without a long and tedious delay.  Children taken from 2 to five seconds.  B. England,  L. C. Gunn.

The second advertisement appeared on  February 15, 1848 in the Public Ledger.  England & Gunn Daguerreotype Rooms continue to be visited by our most respectable citizens.  The pictures are admitted to be among the best that have ever been taken and these are the best advertisements.  Rooms Southeast corner of Chestnut and Fifth Streets, entrance on Fifth street.

The third advertisement appeared on February 19, 1848 in the Public Ledger.  George W. Kendall, of the N. O. Picayune, [celebrated] as the author of letters from Mexico, has been Daguerreotyped by England & Gunn, and can be seen at their Rooms, as also the likenesses of Major Bliss, General Quitman, and other distinguished individuals.  The likenesses are all pronounced admirable, multitudes are continually calling to see them.  Rooms Southeast corner of Chestnut and Fifth Sts., entrance on Fifth st. 

The first announcement appeared March 6, 1848 in the Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).  Better than the Best.—We noticed in our last paper a large and beautiful likeness of Henry Clay, executed by England & Gunn.  As we now learn, that the likeness was taken at a private house, on a stormy day; so that the artists had but little opportunity for showing their skill.  The result, however, was so good, that on being shown to Mr. Clay, he consented to visit the rooms of these gentlemen, at the south-east corner of Chestnut and Fifth streets, where the admirable arrangement of light enables them to give a peculiar softness and finish to their pictures.  Accordingly he went on Saturday; and we have before us now the picture which was taken.  We can [ ? ] show no greater praise than to say that it is one of the largest we have seen, and that it is remarkably beautiful!—every way worthy of the subject, and creditable to the artists.  We thought the first picture could not be excelled, but this is better.  Copies will be taken immediately for such as wish them.  

The second announcement appeared on March 11, 1848 in the Public Ledger.  The Artist of our city agree with the multitude, that England & Gunn’s large Daguerreotype likeness of Henry Clay, is the best that has been taken.  Perfect copies are furnished.  Also , likenesses taken in the most finished and artistic manner.  None but the best materials are used, as the pictures testify.  Rooms at S. E. corner of Chestnut and Fifth Sts.  Entrance of Fifth St.

The third announcement appeared on March 18, 1848 in the Public Ledger.  The Hon. Henry Clay Again has visited the rooms of England & Gunn since his return from New York.  They took a full length Daguerreotype portrait of him in the act of making a speech—the only of him ever taken—which he has honored with a written acknowledgment of his satisfaction.  It is already in the hands of an artist, and will be given to the public in a style befitting its perfection.

Rooms S. E. corner of Chestnut and Fifth Streets; entrance on Fifth Street.

The fourth announcement appeared on March 28, 1848 in the Philadelphia Inquirer.  Mr. Van Buren.  Messrs. England & Gunn have just taken a capital daguerreotype of Ex-President Van Buren.  It is intended to form one of a series of engravings of our public men, which Messrs. E. & G. are preparing for the press.

The fourth advertisement appeared on April 8, 1848 in the Philadelphia Inquirer.  Gems Of The Art.  The Daguerreotypes taken by England & Gunn are universally acknowledged to be the gems of the art.  For fidelity as likenesses, and for finish and general effect, they are unsurpassed. One such picture is worth a dozen poor ones.  The Hon. Henry Clay complimented these artist by visiting them twice, and having a full length portrait taken by them, which is now being cut in steel.  Ex-President Martin Van Buren has also had a full length portrait taken by them, which is likewise to be cut in steel. Among other beautiful specimens in their gallery, we noticed admirable likenesses of General Quitman, Major Bliss, Gen. Jessup, Col. Whiting, La Roy Sunderland, Signor [Elitz], Elder J. V. Hines, Dr. Samuel Jackson, &c. &c.

Rooms Southeast corner of Chestnut and Fifth streets, entrance on Fifth Street.

The fifth advertisement appeared on May 6, 1856 in the Philadelphia Inquirer.  The Largest Daguerreotype Likeness of General Taylor, which has ever been taken, can be seen at English & Gunn’s Rooms.

It is to be engraved by Sartain, and will be ready for sale before the Convention meets.

Also, the best likenesses of Henry Clay, Martin Van Buren, Major Bliss, Gen. Quitman, and Col. Whiting, and numerous Portraits and Family Groups.

Enterprise and Perfection is the motto.  Rooms S. E. corner of Chestnut and Fifth streets.  Entrance on Fifth street.

The fifth announcement appeared on November 25, 1848 in the Public Ledger.  Two Premiums This Year, 1848.—The Daguerreotypes of England & Gunn have just been awarded the First Premium by the Maryland Institute at Baltimore, overall competition.  Add to this the Medal given to these artists by the Franklin Institute a few weeks ago, and it is very flattering, especially as they had been in business only nine months.  The public will see the difference between medals received several years ago, when the art was in it infancy, and medals received This Fall, over the very persons who had formerly received them.  Gallery in Fifth Street, just below Chestnut.

The sixth advertisement appeared on March 3, 1849 in the Public Ledger.  A Card.  As we are about leaving the city for some time, we recommend to all our patrons who at the present time may wish to get Daguerreotypes of the first quality, to call on Messrs. McCless & Germon, corner of Eighth and Chestnut Sts.  We regard them as our first artists, and recommend their establishment with the fullest confidence.  March 1, 1849.

Advertisement was recorded on March 3 to 8, 1849.

The seventh advertisement they were mentioned in appeared on April 10, 1850 in the Public Ledger.  Re-Opening—Thomas Colley, Daguerreotypist, formerly of 129 Chestnut street, has opened the Saloon lately occupied by England & Gunn.  L. C. being one of the oldest and most experienced operators in the country, invites his friends, and the public generally, to call and examine his Specimens, which they will pronounce unsurpassed in excellence by any other establishment, and furnished at the following Reduced Rates.

½ sized Plate, usually sold at $5, for $3!

¼ sized do      do         do        $4,      $2!

⅙ sized do      do         do        $2½    $1!

N. B.—The half size plate, being the most suitable for family grouping, is particularly recommended; and the cheap rate at which it is furnished will afford ample reasons for the wise and economical to patronize Colley, 142 Chestnut street, Corner of Fifth street.

England and Gunn are recorded in are recorded in other photographic directories.  Directory of Philadelphia Photographers 1839-1900 records the partner ship as 1848.  Craig’s Daguerreian Registry does not record the partnership, John references that in 1852 B. England formerly of the partnership.  This reference comes from an article in The Photographic Art Journal Vol. 4, October 1852, P. 249 to 253 entitled Mr. Hill And His Manifesto.  P. 253. He states that he has seen a large number of pictures in natural colors, taken by L. L. Hill, of Westkill, N. Y. and have no hesitation whatever, in pronouncing them truthful and genuine, and all, and even more than they have been represented…he signs his Name B. English, Daguerreotypist, formerly England & Gunn, corner of Fifth and Chestnut-sts., Philadelphia.  What he does not say where he is and if he is still daguerreotyping.  English does not appear in the Philadelphia city directories in 1852 nor are their any advertisements in the Philadelphia newspapers that I have searched.

Empire Gallery

1857                177 Greenwich Street, New York, New York.[1]

Empire Gallery was recorded in one advertisement on November 25, 1857 in The New York Herald (New York, New York).  Evacuation Day Will Be Celebrated At The Empire Gallery, 177 Greenwich street, near Cortlandt, by taking 500 ambrotypes, photographs, &c., at from 25 cents upwards.  Call and see them.

Empire Gallery is not listed in other photographers.


[1] Not listed in the 1856/1857; 1857/1858; or 1858/1859 New York City Directories.

Rufus F. Elliot

1856                Kelley’s Rooms, over Broot & Curtis’s Land Office, St. Anthony, Minnesota.

Rufus F. Elliot appeared in one advertisement on November 27, 1856 in the Minnesota Republican (Minneapolis, Minnesota).  R. F. Elliot, Daguerrean Artist.  In Kelley’s Rooms, over Brott & Curtis’s Land Office, St. Anthony, Minnesota.

Miniatures neatly inserted in Pins and Lockets.  Also Landscape views in the most improved style, colors excepted.  January 7th, [1856.]

Rufus F. Elliot is recorded in Pioneer Photographers From The Mississippi To The Continental Divide A Biographical Dictionary, 1839-1865 and Craig’s Daguerreian Registry (as Rufus Elliott).  The date of the advertisement January 7, is probably 1856, only one newspaper was available. 

Thomas C. Ellegood

1851-1852       Address Unknown, Winston, North Carolina.[1]

Thomas C. Ellegood appeared in one announcement on January 30, 1852 in Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).  Thomas C. Ellegood, a tailor, but who recently followed the business of a Daguerreotypist, fell through the ice and was drowned, near Salem, N. C., on the 14th inst.  He was from Richmond, Va.

Thomas C. Ellegood is recorded in other photographic directories.


[1] Photographers In North Carolina The First Century, 1842-1941.

J. K. Eckman

1855                Rooms above Friling & Grant’s Store, Sunbury, Pennsylvania.

J. K. Eckman of the partnership of Leisenring & Eckman were recorded on one advertisement and one announcement in the Sunbury American (Sunbury, Pennsylvania).  The advertisement ran from April 21 to July 7, 1855.  Daguerreotypes.  J. P. Leisenring & J. K. Eckman of Danville, respectfully announce to the ladies and gentlemen of Sunbury and vicinity, that they have opened Daguerrean rooms above Friling & Grant’s Store, in Sunbury, where they are ready to accommodate those who may favor them with a call, with beautiful and life-like miniatures.

All who desire miniatures will do well to call early and secure their pictures, as we know not what  day may bring forth.

Then hasten to our rooms, all ye people,

Before you have reason to grieve;

The cost you will find but little,

And to satisfaction we’ll give.

The announcement appeared on May 5, 1855.  Mr. J. K. Eckman has established a daguerrean gallery in the large room immediately above the store-room of Friling and Grant, Market Square.  He has shown us several specimens of his skill, and we can safely recommend all who wish a likeness in superior style to call upon him.

J. K. Eckman is not recorded in other photographic directories.  Craig’s Daguerreian Registry does list a J. P. Leisenring in Danville in 1854 and latter as a photographer.

Dustin & French

1859                Richards’ Building, Keene, New Hampshire.

Dustin & French (Samuel C. Dustin & J. A. French) were recorded in one advertisement that ran from October 26 to December 28, 1859 in the Farmer’s Museum (Keene, New Hampshire).  The “Great Eastern” Has Not Arrived, But Dustin & French Would respectfully inform the citizens of Keene and vicinity that they are daily making Ambrotypes and Photographs. of every size, style and price.

The Photograph, or Paper Pictures, so much resembling the steel engraving, can be finished in India Ink, or beautifully colored in Oil or Water colors, giving the true colors of nature.  This is a very desirable picture for framing, and the readiness with which an indefinite number of prints can be made from the negative without extra sittings, gives the preference over all other styles of portraiture.

The Patent Leather Picture, a style just introduced, is well adapted for mailing to an absent friend, and durable as the leather itself.

Miniatures Inserted in Lockets, Pins, Rings, &c.

Fading Daguerreotypes and Portraits accurately copied.

Likenesses of small children made best between 10 and 12 A. M., in clear weather.

Ladies and gentlemen are cordially invited to call at our Gallery In Richards’ Building, 4 Doors North Of The Cheshire House, And examine specimens.  S. C. Dustin, J. A. French.

Dustin & French are not recorded in other photographic directories.  Samuel C. Dustin is recorded in Craig’s Daguerreian Registry as being active in Keene, New Hampshire in 1860.  

W. W. Dunn

1859                Over Harkins & Cabot’s Store, Calhoun, Georgia.

W. W. Dunn was recorded in one advertisement on September 8, 1859 in the Democratic Platform (Calhoun, Georgia).  W. W. Dunn, Resident Ambrotypist, [Fancy] Sign And Portrait Painter, Calhoun, Ga.  Call at the Gallery of Fine Arts, over Harkins & Cabot’s Store, and see for yourselves.  Sept. 1st, 1859.

W. W. Dunn is not recorded in other photographic directories.  Unfortunately this was the only issue available to me.

Ms. Dunkirk

1853                Address Unknown, New York, New York.

Ms. Dunkirk is recorded in one advertisement that appeared on September 1, 1853 in The New York Herald (New York, New York).  To Daguerrean Artists—A Lady Is Desirous of a situation in a daguerrean gallery in this city, or any other healthy location.  The best of references given [at] to competency for the business.  Address, for one week, Dunkirk, Herald office.

Ms. Dunkirk is not recorded in other photographic directories.  It is unknown at this time if Ms. Dunkirk found employment or what position she was looking for.

William Dunckleburg

1856                Walker & Hickling’s Block, Ottawa, Illinois.

William Dunckleburg was recorded in one advertisement that ran from August 16 to October 18, 1856 in The Ottawa Free Trader (Ottawa, Illinois).   Something New Again:  Wm. Dunckleburg, The unrivalled Ambrotypist, has the pleasure of announcing to the citizens of Ottawa and vicinity, That he has taken rooms in Walker & Hickling’s Block, on the south side of the square, second floor, where he is prepared to take Ambrotypes by an entirely new process that has just come to light—Ambrotypes taken on glass.  By this process pictures have a depth of tone that cannot be got by the common Ambrotype process, and yet possess all the light and shades.

I will remain in this place but a short time, during which all who wish a perfect likeness will do well to improve this opportunity.  These pictures can be excelled by none.  Ambrotypes put up in good cases for from one to twenty-five dollars.

Please call and examine specimens.  Wm. Dunckleburg & Co.

William Dunckleburg is not recorded as being active in Ottawa, Illinois.

P. Henry Duke

1855-1856       139 Main Street, Over Woodhouse’s Bookstore, Richmond, Virginia.

1859                188 Main Street, Richmond, Virginia,

P. Henry Duke (in the partnership of Powers & Duke 1855-1856) was recorded in twenty six advertisements, and one announcement in The Daily Dispatch (Richmond, Virginia)  and one article in the Photographic and Fine Arts Journal.  The first advertisement ran from January 8 to 11, 1855.  Co-Partnership.—The undersigned have this day formed a Co partnership under the firm of Powers & Duke, for the purpose of carrying on the Daguerrean Business, and solicits a continuance of the patronage hitherto extended to their Senior Partner.

E. M. Powers, P. Henry Duke, 139 Main Street, over Woodhouse’s Bookstore.  ja. 8.

2d advertisement ran from January 19 to February 1, 1855.  How Life-Like, Beautiful And Cheap!—Such is almost the universal cry of those who have visited our Gallery and obtained for themselves a beautiful flesh-tint Daguerreotype, taken only by Powers & Duke, 139 Main st.  We particularly invite our friends, both city and country, to give us a call, as we are prepared to give all in want a beautiful flesh-tint Daguerreotype for only 50 Cents.

Come, friends and the public, one and all—

If a picture you wish which is nice—

Over Woodhouse’s store just give us a call;

You cannot object to the price.

Powers & Duke, Sign of the Red Flag. 

3d advertisement ran from February 2 to 8, 1855.  The Only gallery where you can get a Daguerreotype for 50 cents; and of the many hundreds sent out within the last two months, not a single one but what have given ample satisfaction in every respect.

We return our thanks to our friends and the public, and respectfully invite one and all to call and examine specimens, whether they set for a Picture or not.

Remember this is the only place to get a Daguerreotype for fifty cents.  Powers & Duke, 139 Main st., Sign of the Red Flag. 

4th advertisement ran from February 9 to March 6, 1855.  Fifty Cent Daguerreotypes are all the rage in our city, and Powers & Duke are the only men that can give you a superb likeness for Fifty Cents.  This is no humbug.  Their flesh tint Daguerreotypes are the best we have ever seen, and their pictures are warranted to please or no sale.  We have seen hundreds of their 50 cent Likenesses, and we pronounce them inferior to none, and far superior to many taken at other Galleries at a cost of Two Dollars.  For a good and cheap Picture call at Powers & Duke, 139 Main st., Over Woodhouse’s Bookstore, Eagle Square.

5th advertisement ran from March 6 to 19, 1855.  A Perfect Rush For Powers & Duke’s 50 cent Daguerreotypes, which, like the Penny Post and Dispatch, are too well known to need puffing.  We think it only necessary to remind the public of being still at the old stand, 139 Main street, where we are daily taking a great many of those beautiful 50 cent Daguerreotypes, which have been so much admired by every one who has seen them, and have been pronounced by judges to be superior to any taken at other galleries in this city for two dollars each.  While the weather is favorable to the art, we would respectfully invite one and all to give us a call before visiting elsewhere—Don’t forget the name and number.

Powers & Duke, 139 Main street, sign of the red flag, Over Woodhouse’s Bookstore.  mh. 6.

6th advertisement ran from March 23 to 27, 1855.  Powers & Duke Take Daguerreotypes For 50 Cents Each.—Call today and get one.  Stereoscope Pictures taken at $4, and warranted satisfactory.

Powers & Duke, 139 Main street, sign of the red flag, Over Woodhouse’s Bookstore.  mh. 23.

7th advertisement ran from March 28 to April 17, 1855.  50 Cent Daguerreotypes Are All The Go, to be had only at Powers & Duke’s large Sky Light Gallery, 139 Main street.

Our Daguerreotypes are warranted not to fade or change color, and those who wish something really good will do well to give us a call, over Woodhouse’s Bookstore—sign of the Red Flag. Powers & Duke. 

8th advertisement ran from April 19 to May 1, 1855.  Powers & Duke are still supplying their numerous friends and thousands of customers with beautiful and life-like Daguerreotypes, for 50 cents each.  They do not wish to humbug the public by saying that high priced pictures are the best; but this they do say, that their 50 cent likenesses are superior to many taken in this city at two dollars each.  All who want a picture worth carrying home, are respectfully invited to call at No. 139 Main street, over Woodhouse’s Bookstore, Eagle Square. 

9th advertisement ran from May 1 to 5, 1855.  5000 Daguerreotypes, taken by Powers & Duke, Since the first of January last.  This is enough to satisfy the curious that they are the men to call on for your Daguerreotypes.

Call to-day and get one of their never fading 50 Cent Daguerreotypes.  139 Main street, over Woodhouse’s Bookstore, Sign of the Red Flag. 

10th advertisement ran from May 8 to June 21, 1855.  From 50 Cents to $25—Lovers of Good Pictures are respectfully informed that Powers & Duke are the only artists in this city that offer good Daguerreotypes, from 50 cts. to $25, which is an inducement to every one in want of a good and beautiful Daguerreotype.  To be had only of Powers & Duke, 139 Main st., Over Woodhouse’s Bookstore, Eagle Square.  my. 8.

11th advertisement ran from June 23 to July 14.  Our Thanks are due to the people of Richmond, and especially to the “Young Guard,” for the liberal patronage bestowed upon us for the past year, for which we are very thankful, and hope to merit a continuance of the same, promising to use every means, without regard to expense, necessary to produce the finest Daguerreotypes ever offered to the public.

Our prices range from 50 cents to $30.  Stereoscopes taken for $5.              All Pictures warranted. Powers & Duke, 139, Main street, over Northern Telegraph Office.                           

12th advertisement ran from July 16 to August 15, 1855.  What The Virginia Gazette Says—If you want an exact image of your face and features, which you can hand down to your latest posterity, drop in to see Messrs. Powers & Duke.  Their Daguerreotypes never fade, and beside are as true as nature itself.  You can see the very fine sparkling in the eye.  We have tried the artistic skill of these gentlemen, and therefore speak from experience.

Those who have beauty, should to this firm take it; Those who have none should go to them to make it.  [Virginia Gazette. 

13th advertisement ran from August 14 to 18, 1855.  Daguerreotypes.—Call at Powers & Duke’s splendid Daguerrean Gallery and secure for yourself a beautiful Picture.

Here art triumphant our attention claims;

Here life seems speaking from a hundred frames;

Belles, merchants, statesmen throng the pictured walls—

Each face, each form its living type recall.—

Features, complexion, attitude, attire;

Beauty’s soft smile and manhood’s glance of fire,

Truly reflected from the burnished plate,

Astonish life with its own duplicate.

Think not these portraits by the sunlight made.

Shades though they are, will like a shadow fade—

No!  When the life of flesh in dust shall lie—

When Death’s grey film o’erspread the beaming eye—

These life-like pictures, mocking at decay,

Will still be fresh and vivid as to-day!

Gallery 139 Main street, Eagle Square, over Woodhouse’s Bookstore. 

1st announcement appeared on August 15, 1855.  Let the world say what it will, Watson’s Richmond’s Laureate still.

Poetry by the Protype Bard and Port Laureate of the city of Richmond.  Spoken extemporaneously in the presence of witnesses, after having his Likeness taken by Powers & Duke, whose Likeness has been seen (in his gold medal) by the President of the United States and the Mayor of Baltimore; also by Commodores Perry and Aulick, U. S. N., and supposed to be true and correct likeness of that great and immortal genius:

All that want their likeness took,

Step in with faith to Powers & Duke;

‘Tis true, the Artist and the Tailor

May embellish Nature’s failure;—

None can equal these two men,

That’s took me once and once again;

I am took fair in every feature,

As I was formed by mother Nature.

Lord knows I never was a beauty,

But if, my friends, this likeness suit ye,

I faithful told each Daguerrean

To let the Phototype be seen;

Though I am Richmond’s Poet laureate,

Not one cent they charged me for it.

As I must speak my mind sincere,

All who want their likeness here—

All who Tom Watson’s face do know,

Powers & Duke the same will show,—

Honest, fair, by Nature took.

Just step in to Powers & Duke.

Thomas Watson.

Prototype Bard of Virginia and Poet laureate of the city of Richmond, the only living successor of Byron, Burns, Milton, Moore and the immortal Wm. Shakspeare.   

14th advertisement ran from August 22 to September 12, 1855.  Powers & Duke’s Daguerreotypes, which has created such a sensation with the public, are still to be had at 139, Main street.

We have several late improvements in the art, to which we invite particular attention.  Boston Quick for sale by Powers & Duke. 

2nd announcement appeared on September 11, 1855.  Aid For The Sufferers.—We have to acknowledge from Messrs. Powers & Duke $22 for the benefit of the afflicted of Norfolk and Portsmouth.  This sum was received at their Daguerrean Gallery, yesterday.  With a commendable benevolence, they sat apart their receipts for the day to this humane object.  Their generous contribution shall have the proper destination.

15th advertisement ran from September15 to October 11, 1855.  Daguerreotypes.—We have seen some of Powers & Duck’s new style of Daguerreotypes, and pronounce them superior to any we ever saw, and is a decided improvement on the old style of Daguerreotype.  Call and see them. 

16th advertisement ran from October 1 to 5, 1855.  Daguerreotypes.—Powers & Duke, Eagle Square.

Daguerreotypes must be perfection,

Since pictured by the sun’s direction,

Heaven’s own bright rays shed from above,

To enshrine the forms of those we love.  oc. 1.

17th advertisement ran from October 16 to 20, 1855.  Daguerreotypes.—Powers & Duke are offering great inducements to persons in want of good and desirable Daguerreotypes.  All of our Pictures are warranted to please or no sale.  

18th advertisement ran from October 26 to November 2, 1856.  Daguerreotypes.—It is well known that we seldom or never award praise to those to whom it is not due; therefore those who may chance to read this will know that we speak true when we say that Powers & Duke’s Flesh-Tint Daguerreotypes are unsurpassed by any one, and we advise our friends, if they want the worth of their money, and a likeness that will not fade, to call on them, over Woodhouse & Co.’s Bookstore, Main st.

19th advertisement ran from November 20 to December 3, 1855.  50 Cent Daguerreotypes.—By the solicitation of many of our friends, we commence this day to take good and durable Daguerreotypes for 50 cents.   Respectfully, Powers & Duke. 

20th advertisement ran from November 24 to December 1, 1855.  Ain’t we glad that Powers & Duke have returned again to taking Daguerreotypes for 50 cents.  Oh! They are such dear little things.  no. 24.

21st advertisement ran from December 12, 1855 to January 16, 1856.  50 Cent Daguerreotypes.—Powers & Duke are still furnishing their customers with their never-failing Daguerreotypes for 50 cts. each.  They do not pretend to humbug the people with Ambrotypes or Glass Pictures, hermotically sealed between two glasses; but they are still taking their world-renowned Flesh Tint Daguerreotypes, which are to well known to the people of Virginia, and which have received the highest praise, both for their cheapness and durability. 

The article appeared in the Photographic and fine Arts Journal (New York, New York) on June 1, 1856, P. 217.  In an article entitled the Photographic Galleries of America.  Number Three, Richmond. The author visited 7 Galleries in Richmond.

Duke. — The specimens of this establishment, are complete caricatures on the art. Big heads on small plates, young ladies with bouquets in their hands, old ladies with either an orange or a red book clutched firmly between their fingers. Then imagine here and there a dab of red or yellow paint, marking out a watch or chain or some other jewelry, and you will have a good idea of these pictures, furnished all complete, gotten up and colored after the manner I have described, for the very low and degrading price of 50 cents. This establishment has not yet meddled with glass pictures; and for the sake of the art, for which I have always had a reverence, I hope it never will.

22d advertisement ran from January 10 to 16, 1856.  A Card.—The Firm of Powers & Duck is this day dissolved by mutual consent.  Those indebted to the firm will come forward and settle with E. M. Powers.  The creditors of the said firm will present their claims to said E. M. Powers for settlement.  E. M. Powers.  P. Henry Duke.  Richmond, January 3, 1856.

I have this day purchased of Mr. P. Henry Duke his entire interest in the Daguerrean Gallery known under the above firm and shall continue to carry on the business, hoping to merit a continuance of the patronage so liberally extended to the firm. E. M. Powers.  Richmond, January 8, 1856.

23d advertisement ran on July 20 & 21, 1859.  If you want a beautiful Likeness, go to Duke’s Gallery, corner above the Post-Office, at Osborne’s old stand.  Having lately engaged the services of one of the most talented artist in the United States, I am making nothing but the very best pictures, at prices from 25 cents to $25.

P. Henry Duke, Artist.             

24th advertisement ran on August 16 & 17, 1859.  Duke’s Gallery—Duke’s Gallery—Corner above Post-Office.  Corner above Post-Office.   Only Twenty-Five Cents, Fifty Cents, One Dollar and Up, For the best Pictures in the world.  Call and be convinced of the fact. 

25th advertisement appeared on August 30, 1859.  At Duke’s Gallery, Cor. Above the P. O.  Gallery, Cor. Above the P. O.  Gallery, Cor. Above the P. O.  Gallery, Cor. Above the P. O.  Gallery, Cor. Above the P. O.

$2 Ambrotypes $2 Ambrotypes $2 Ambrotypes $2 Ambrotypes $2 Ambrotypes.  Taken for 50 cents.  Taken for 50 cents.  Taken for 50 cents.  Taken for 50 cents.  Taken for 50 cents.  In a large size case, In a large size case, In a large size case, In a large size case, In a large size case,

And warranted in every respect.  And warranted in every respect.  And warranted in every respect.  And warranted in every respect.  And warranted in every respect.  Equal to those at other Galleries for $2.  Equal to those at other Galleries for $2.  

26th advertisement ran on December 29 & 30, 1859.  Duke’s Southern Photographic Temple Of Art, 188 Main st., cor. Above the Post-Office.

Plain Photographs executed for $1 only; Duplicates $9 per doz.  Ivorytypes $10 and up.  Photographs in Indian Ink, pastel, Water Colors, and Oil, from miniatures to life size, on the most reasonable terms.

Mr. Wm. S. Shaw, late of London, who had the honor of being selected by the Protestant Episcopal Missionary Board to photograph the Bishops, Clerical and Lay Delegates of the Episcopal Church of America that met here in convention in October, Is now engaged at the Southern Photographic Temple of Art, and the public may rest assured they will be supplied with first class work in all branches of the art, equal to that of any other establishment in the Union—as Mr. Shaw is well known , and acknowledged one of the first photographers of this country.

P. Henry Duke is not recorded in other photographic directories, nor is the partnership of Powers & Duke. William S. Shaw is not recorded as being active in 1859 in Richmond, Virginia.